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Tarikh-e-Firoz Shahi: A History of the Delhi Sultanate
Tarikh-e-Firoz Shahi is a historical work written by Ziyauddin Barni, a court historian of Sultan Firoz Shah Tughlaq, who ruled Delhi from 1351 to 1388 CE. The book covers the history of the Delhi Sultanate from the reign of Sultan Ghiyas ud Din Balban (1266-1287 CE) to the sixth year of Firoz Shah Tughlaq's rule (1357 CE). It is considered one of the finest specimens of Indo-Persian historiography produced during the Sultanate period in India.
The book is divided into four parts: the first part deals with the life and achievements of Balban and his successors; the second part describes the rise and fall of the Khalji dynasty (1290-1320 CE); the third part narrates the events of the Tughlaq dynasty (1320-1413 CE) until the death of Muhammad bin Tughlaq (1351 CE); and the fourth part focuses on the reign of Firoz Shah Tughlaq and his reforms. The book also contains valuable information on the political, social, economic, cultural and religious aspects of medieval India.
Tarikh-e-Firoz Shahi is a primary source for the history of the Delhi Sultanate and has been translated into several languages, including English. The book is available in PDF format for download from various online sources, such as Rekhta[^1^], Google Books[^2^] and Oxford Academic[^3^].
One of the most notable features of Firoz Shah Tughlaq's rule was his public works and reforms. He was a great patron of irrigation and agriculture, and constructed many canals, wells, reservoirs and rest-houses for the benefit of the farmers and travelers. He also established hospitals, schools, colleges, libraries and mosques throughout his empire. He was especially interested in preserving the ancient monuments and relics of India, and collected many inscriptions, statues, pillars and coins from different places. He also built his own mausoleum at Hauz Khas in Delhi, which is still standing today.
Firoz Shah Tughlaq was also a devout Muslim who tried to uphold the laws of Islam and adopted Sharia policies. He imposed Jizya tax on all non-Muslims, and tried to ban practices that the orthodox theologians considered un-Islamic, such as music, dancing, painting and gambling. He persecuted a number of sects that were deemed heretical by the Muslim scholars, such as the Ismailis, Mahdavis and Qalandars. He also supported the spread of Islam in India by sending missionaries and preachers to different regions.
However, Firoz Shah Tughlaq's rule was not without its flaws and failures. He faced many rebellions and revolts from various provinces, such as Bengal, Gujarat, Malwa, Sind and Multan. He was unable to suppress them effectively, and had to concede virtual independence to some of them. He also failed to check the Mongol invasions from the northwest, which caused much damage and devastation to his empire. He was also criticized for his lavish spending and extravagant lifestyle, which drained the treasury and increased the burden on the people. He was also accused of nepotism and favoritism, as he appointed his relatives and friends to high positions without merit. aa16f39245